A Reading to Learn Activity Plan: High School Debate

Curriculum Area/Topic:  Current Events topic related to the Olympics for a 10th grade literacy class with small group instruction.

Instructional Strategy:   The Creative Debate strategy allows students to practice their social skills (working together, giving feedback to peers) and it allows them to practice speaking skills (making eye contact, choosing appropriate language, speaking in front of people).  Students are also, of course, working toward meeting Common Core Standards (which aren’t written for special education students who are below grade level like mine, but that’s another conversation entirely).  This reflection strategy is useful because it gives students more realistic practice in an important life skill:  supporting opinions with facts.  Most of my students like to say “because” when asked “why”; I prefer that they learn to give good reasons based on facts and understanding.

Goals and Objectives:

The Common Core states that 10th grade students will present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance and style are appropriate to purpose, audience and task (SL.9-10.4).  It also states that 10th grade students will write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence (W.0-10.1) and they will produce clear and coherent writing…(W.9-10.4).  So the objectives of this lesson are as follows:

  1. Students will find evidence from the text which supports their side of the issue.
  2. Students will write a brief summary stating their side of the issue; the summary will contain clear, concise writing with logical and supporting evidence, and it will contain proper grammar, usage and mechanics.
  3. Students will present their side of the debate in front of a class using clear, concise and logical information.

Prerequisites:  Students should already be familiar with the 2 articles and their subject matter due to class work and discussion in previous classes including vocabulary work, main idea/topic work, and gathering supporting details for a class summary of the articles.

Procedures:

  1. Each student will have a copy of each of the articles:  “The Waste and Corruption of Vladimir Putin’s 2014 Olympics” and “The Elusive Economic Lift of the Olympics
  2. Tell students that it is now time to prepare for and debate a major issue set forth in the Vladimir Putin article. Give them the debate sides:  Russia wasted money on the Olympics, or The money Russia spent will help bring an economic boom to the economy.  Tell them which side they will defend and organize the students into two teams.  Go over the grading rubric for the debate.
  3. Give students each a graphic organizer to help them keep track of information that will support their side (see “materials to prepare”). Indicate additional resources students can use to find more support for their side:
    1. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-02-06/russians-rue-economy-as-most-expensive-olympics-begin-at-sochi.html
    2. http://www.businessinsider.com/economics-sochi-olympics-2014-2
    3. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/01/27/putin-s-olympic-shame.html
    4. http://www.thestar.com/news/world/2014/01/25/russian_president_vladimir_putins_50billion_olympic_games.html
  1. Students will review the information they already have and they will find information that supports their side of the debate and enter it into their debate preparation graphic organizers. Students will work as a group to find information, but will each complete their own graphic organizers.  For students who need extra support, teachers can scribe.  The teachers should circulate and check-in with teams to make sure they are getting enough relevant information to support their topic and that they are adequately summarizing it.  This part of the lesson will likely take an entire class period.
  2. When the organizers are completed each student will be given notecards to use during the debate; they can complete them as follows (or in a way more comfortable for them—though I find that my students like to be told how to organize because they never learned how):
    1. Opening statement (front) Ending statement (back)
    2. 3 cards: Major point with supporting facts (front) Major point with facts (back)
    3. Points the opposition might use (front) counterarguments and rebuttals (back)
  3. Allow time for practice (each team in a separate space working with a teacher). Students can adjust their debate points based on teacher feedback.  Steps 5+6 will likely take another whole class period to prepare.
  4. The two teams will present their debate in front of teachers and students from another class. For students with significant anxiety, they can present their arguments individually to the teacher and will become part of the audience during the debate. Tell students how the debate will progress:
    1. First each side will begin with an opening statement
    2. The “wasted $” side will begin with 3-5 minutes to make their major points
    3. The “economic boom” side will make their major points (3-5 minutes)
    4. The “wasted $” side will make counterarguments (3 mins)
    5. The “economic boom” side will make counterarguments (3 mins)
    6. Rebuttals will continue as necessary
    7. Each side will end with a closing statement
  5. Once the debate is completed, the audience will each complete a scoring rubric.
  6. Students will write a brief summary of their side of the issue in a well-written short essay that has proper grammar, usage and mechanics (homework).
  7. Students who wish to complete “make-up” work (because they have been absent) or who wish to earn extra credit can do a write up for the opposing side.

Assessment:

The students will be assessed based on completion of the scoring rubric by the audience.  The teacher will also have completed a scoring rubric during the presentation.  The students will also be assessed on their short writing piece (whether their arguments were logical and well supported as well as for proper English conventions of writing).

Materials to Prepare:

Graphic organizer (outline) for debate preparation:

My side of the issue is:

5 points that support my side (each point has 1 fact to prove it):

5 points the opposition might say:

Counterpoints (facts I can use against the opposition):

Debate Scoring Rubric (PDF)

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Community Service Learning

Service learning with middle school students in special education can be a challenge.  I teach in a school with 100% free and reduced lunch students and all of my students have significant emotional and behavioral challenges.  They always ask me before I take them out to do community service, “why do we have to do this?”  I tell them because it is a privilege for the taxpayers to provide them this special school to attend so they should help the community in return.  That is usually enough of an explanation for them.  They have a hard time focusing and staying on task, but when they get outside they become decent helpers.  I know that this is also the beginning of teaching them a work ethic, persistence, initiative, and cooperation.

IMG_20150507_103929404_HDR

2 students dig out an invasive tree.

The skills students learn from participating in community service are not the kinds of skills that get assessed on tests, and they are not skills that are part of the Common Core, but they are skills that are necessary for getting along well in the adult world and keeping a job.

A Few Comprehension Resources

I was looking through old documents on my computer and found some things that I decided to provide as a resource.  I must have put these together originally for a class I took, but I can’t remember now.  Enjoy.

Questions to ask Yourself While you are Reading:

Does this phrase/passage make sense?

How do I say that word? (when you come to a word you don’t know)

What does that word mean? (when you come to a word you don’t know)

What did I just read?

What is the main idea?  How can I find it?

What are the implied meanings of this passage?

How does this connect to the real world, to my life, or to something I remember?

What is the author trying to say?—what is the message?

Close Reading Questions:

Math:

            Read the problem 2 or 3 times

State what the problem asks you to solve

Select data that will help you solve the problem

Decide if there is a formula you can apply

Set up an equation/chart/graph

Sketch to help you see the problem

Does my answer make sense?

Graphics and Charts (any subject area):

Look at the graphic and read the title—what does it tell you the graphic is about?

Read all of the text in the graphic

Think about the information—how does it relate to the topic?

Ask:  “what’s important?”

Connect this important info to life and experiences

Prompts for Making Connections

How does this information apply to your life?

What feelings did the reading raise for you?  Why?

What have you learned about yourself by studying this (event/person)?

What new information did you learn from the article that the book didn’t discuss?

Ideas for Teaching Vocabulary

Predict and clarify:  write some vocab words on the board and have students predict what they think the meaning is.  Then, preview the reading—bold faced words, titles, graphics (etc…) and write a refined explanation of the word.  Next, read the sentence/passage with the word and show students how the passage tells you about the word’s meaning—get the meaning down if the students don’t already have it.  They can move to doing this independently with reading material they can handle and they can share their responses with the group.  Help them refine their explanations/definitions into phrases they will remember.

List, Group, Label:  Brainstorm a list of words associated with a topic.  Categorize the words into different groups/headings.  Explain why words are in certain groups/headings (this is a group activity).

Ways for Students to Keep Track:

Learning Logs:  a small notebook or handmade book where students jot down what they learned that day in the subject.

Inquiry Log:  like a learning log, except that students write down further questions they have on the topic and you address that question with additional resources or activities—this can be part of the learning log as well.

Fast-write:  before learning do a freewrite where students write all they can think of about the topic in a short amount of time…after learning, this would be a technique where students write all they’ve learned about the topic and their thoughts about it in a short amount of time.

Coding System (sample you can use):         √ = agree with this point

X = disagree with this point

* = new information

? = don’t understand this

­­underline something interesting

Here is a PDF of some generic Graphic organizers as well.

Ideas for Teaching the Cognitive Processes of Questioning to Students with Emotional and Behavioral Challenges

Description:

This is a project I designed back in 2000.  It is designed to help emotionally and behaviorally disturbed high school students learn the skills they need to do better in school and assume responsibility for their learning.  I recommend that it be used with students who are in an alternative school setting and to use this curriculum as part of the process of reintegrating students to the mainstream.  This curriculum is designed for small groups (of about 6) so that there can be follow up and more accurate observation.  Ideally parts of this curriculum would be used in all classes to aid understanding and generalization.  This program will work well if there is already a behavior management system in place so that certain positive behaviors can be reinforced. There are also many ways you can update the activities for the 21st Century.

The teaching principles of this curriculum project include:  addressing several learning styles, relating information to real life, using teacher modeling, using systematic and explicit steps, making it interesting and age appropriate, and giving meaningful feedback.

Rationale:

By the time EBD students are in high school, they have had thousands of terrible school experiences.  To make matters worse, they might even have disabilities in processing, reading or writing.  My goal as a teacher in an alternative school is to get these EBD students back to the mainstream.  Most of the readiness has to happen with a change in their behavior.  We have found over the past couple of years that we need to prepare them better for the rigorous academics of high school.  Many of our students who transition back to mainstream end up out of the school and referred back to an alternative setting (if they don’t drop out first).  If we can help these students become successful learners then one of the hurdles has been jumped when they transition back.

My students have difficulty answering teacher questions because they don’t understand the meaning of some of the cognitive verbs.  They also have difficulty classifying and labeling, interpreting and inferring and explaining, supporting and predicting.  We get the shoulder shrug a lot when we ask them how their behavior affects others or when we ask them what would happen if they were to behave [like that] while on the job.

A curriculum designed to help EBD students learn to learn better could help in several ways.  First it could help the teacher reach the student potential more successfully.  And it could help the EBD student feel more confident in school.  Part of being a successful student is knowing how to answer questions and discuss topics—feeling more confident about their abilities might give them the incentive to stay in school, participate and take more control of their learning.  It can’t be much fun to sit and be a passive learner—no wonder their behavior takes over, they want some control.  I want to teach them to gain it in positive ways.

I recorded my eighth grade science class in order to be able to accurately record teacher questions and student answers to assess the student learning.  These students are emotionally and behaviorally disabled and they are in an alternative school specifically dealing with that disability.  The goal is for them to be mainstreamed back to their sending schools, though that is not always the reality.

On the day of taping, I had asked students to try taking notes from one of the paragraphs on their own as we had practiced before, with disastrous results.  Students were copying word for word from the book and they were not judging the appropriate main ideas.  I quickly put a stop to it and helped them as I had been doing since the start of the school year.  As I watched the recording I wondered why these students didn’t paraphrase the notes and why they had trouble evaluating the importance of information.

Goal and Objectives:

Goal:   To teach EBD high school students to recognize teacher questions and improve their questioning techniques.

Students will:

  1. understand question/answer and discussion patterns
  2. understand the meaning of some cognitive verbs
  3. understand the purpose of questioning and the rules of questioning
  4. understand some different roles of the questioner
  5. understand how to recognize what answer the teacher is looking for
  6. understand how to use questions to check own understanding of the learning

Objectives and Activities:

  1. Students will review the question-answer-discussion pattern of learning and analyze the value of questions and discussions.

Activity 1:  Twenty Questions

Before doing this activity, a teacher should let students know that there are certain patterns for discussion that teachers follow in school to help students learn better and to help them learn to think.  Students can learn these patterns to help them follow a discussion better and to help them anticipate what will happen.  This game, when followed up with a “debrief” discussion, will help students practice the pattern.  The format of the game is that the teacher chooses an item and students have to guess what it is.  Here are the rules:  students can only ask yes or no questions; no answers can be repeated; students can only ask 20 questions (total); students only get three guesses (total); students must ask their questions in turn; students must write down questions they want to ask; students must raise their hands to speak.  Repeat the game 3-5 times.  Afterward, ask students:  What questions were asked?  Which questions helped us get the answer more easily?  What do we notice about these questions?  (looking for things like:  they were specific, they were related to the other questions)

Activity 2:  Taped Talk-show Segment (or news interview)

The teacher will carefully select and edit a segment of a talk-show where there is questioning and answering going on (an interview will work the best).  A teacher might be able to find a segment with a group interview as an example of a discussion for the students to watch.  As the students watch, they should be filling in a graphic organizer while viewing to help them focus on what specifically they are looking for.  They should be looking for general things like how the interviewer presents his/her questions; how the people interact with each other (social skills); and how the interviewer’s questions relate to previous answers. Go over the answers students put on the organizer.

Activity 3:  “Debrief” Discussion

Students have a teacher-led discussion about what they did in the first two activities.  The teacher states that a discussion has the following form:  question-answer- response (which could be another question).  A student’s job is to participate in the discussion in all parts—answering, questioning and responding.  The teacher should model the questioning and follow-up student answers with additional questions while also inviting students to ask their own questions.  So they can see how to use this format with anyone, not just with the teacher.  The teacher can ask questions, but so can they.  On an organizer, have students first answer questions about a discussion.  For example, these questions might include:  What are some reasons for asking questions?  Where are some places (what are some times) where you will have to ask questions?  The teacher will then lead the discussion this way to move students to a higher order of thinking:

  1. Let’s list all of the things that were said and done that we can remember that happened during the game and the video. What kinds of questions were asked?  What kinds of responses were given?  What do we know about having a class discussion?
  2. Now let’s group things that seem to go together (for example, let’s group all of the questions together)
  3. How do we know these things go together?
  4. How can we use this information that we just gathered?  What does it tell us?

What things helped the questioning?  What hurt the questioning?

  1. What are some ways that questions can help with learning? With our job?
  2. Let’s predict some specific questions that could be asked in certain classes (students should write these down and also share them orally). How about in certain jobs?

Students then write a journal entry:  What did you learn about discussions?  What is the purpose of the question-answer-discussion pattern of learning?  How does it help a student to learn better?  Give some examples of questions you could ask in school.  How will questioning and discussion help you in your job later in life?

Evaluation

The teacher will be able to read the journal entry to see what the students took away from the discussion and activities.  The teacher will also be able to see their organizers and the questions they wrote during the twenty questions activity.  The teacher should also set up an ongoing “contract” with the students (this is based on a behavior management system already in place.  When a student asks an appropriate question during a discussion in any class then it is recorded and after a pre-determined number have been recorded then the student earns something). It is ok to remind students of their ongoing contract because after awhile it will become something of a habit for them and you won’t have to do much reminding.

  1. Students will determine the meanings of: explain, analyze, summarize, compare, predict, contrast and describe

Brainstorm/Underlining Activity

Students will go through sheets in their folders (worksheets, quizzes etc…) and they will underline all of the cognitive verbs from the list above that they can find.  They will count the number of times those words are used in their work.  As a group the results will be tallied.  The teacher will ask what the importance of this number is and then move on to “what do these words mean?”  The group will brainstorm some definitions (in a style appropriate for them…some drawing, some semantic mapping, some listing).  Then students will do a worksheet that has example scenarios that the students have to match with a word from the list.  The group goes over the sheet when it is done and they write down the correct definitions.

Vocabulary Activity

Students will again fill in scenarios (examples and non-examples) of the words.  This sheet will also have a section where students write their own scenarios for the words.  Discuss the answers as a group.

Semantic Feature Analysis

As a group, the chart will be discussed and filled in.  The main point that the teacher should now be expressing is that the teacher will choose the words according to what information he/she wants to find out.  Where and how can they be used?  Let’s find out.

Writing Questions

Students will write quiz questions using the words.  They will use their notes from a particular subject to do this.  Students also need to make an answer key for their questions (they need to answer their own questions correctly so that the teacher can see if the students know how to use the words appropriately).  Students can pass their question sheets on to other students if there is time and interest.

Evaluation

Students have activity sheets including written scenarios.  They also have their own written questions and answers.  The teacher can also get a feel for how the group understands the words when they discuss the semantic feature analysis (since there are at most, 6 kids in the group it makes it more obvious).  A teacher can also set up an ongoing contract where a student can earn 1 bonus point on work for every time they find and underline the words and answer the question correctly.

  1. Students will establish and use the rules of questioning and discussion

Discovering the Guidelines of Group Discussion

This is a teacher-led discussion for students to come up with some good practices for speaking and listening.  The quality of the information and the amount the teacher needs to lead the group depends on the group itself.  Students should take notes.  The discussion should be lead in the following way (and it will vary a little depending on the group and how much prodding the teacher has to do):

  1. a) let’s list/draw everything we know about speaking and listening
  2. b) what ideas seem to go together?  How do we know?
  3. c) how will these things help us communicate better with each other? How will good speaking and listening skills help us in school and on the job?
  4. d) where are some places we use speaking and listening skills? Why do we need these skills?  What happens when we don’t use these skills?
  5. e) Using what we know about speaking and listening, what are some good guidelines for asking questions? Let’s make three rules we should always follow.

Group Mock Interview

The teacher thinks of a “famous person” and the students need to figure out the identity of that person using questioning skills and keeping the guidelines (they just created) in mind.  Here are the rules for the activity:  each question must be related to something that has just been said (for example:  if a question is “are you living or dead” and the answer is “dead,” then the next logical question could be “what year did you die?”—this could be difficult for students to attempt right off—it could be something students start to practice after doing the activity a few times) questions must be asked one at a time and a student must raise hand to speak.  If necessary a teacher might incorporate a strategy to help with the questioning:  for instance, take one word from the last statement made and use it to form your question—this should teach students to listen to each other and it can help them keep to the topic at hand.   This activity should be recorded so that students can go back over it and judge whether or not their discussion topic flowed and their questions followed each other.

Partner Conversation

Students work with a partner and ask questions of each other on a topic of their interest.  They need to write down their topic and the questions that they will ask (but these can be revised based on the flow of the conversation).  Students should ask at least one question using one of the cognitive verbs and  the teacher can help them formulate these questions if necessary.  When students have practiced a little, then they can perform their “conversation” in front of the group.  The group should be evaluating the partners using a pre-made form.  There should be a discussion after everyone has performed.

Evaluation

The videotape and observations will help the teacher understand what the students took away from the learning.

  1. Students will determine different roles they can take in discussions

Redefining a Product

The teacher will begin this activity by first asking students if everyone participates in a discussion in the same way (hopefully students realize that the answer is no).  The teacher will then give examples of different ways people participate in discussions:  the leader, the summarizer, the “idea-generator” etc.  Students can then try to guess what role they usually play.  After the discussion, the teacher will define 4 roles:

the “idea-generator” who cranks out ideas/accepts feedback well

The nurturer who gives positive feedback to everyone and encourages by saying things like “that’s a great idea”

The summarizer who puts ideas together/takes notes “let me see if I have this right…”

The leader who mediates arguments/keeps time/decides order/asks questions to keep discussion going

The students are assigned roles and then given an activity to “redefine a product.”  They work for a company that has created 10 tons of radioactive jell-o and they can’t just dump it somewhere.  They are the committee formed to come up with a way to use it safely.  Their job is to talk about what to do with it and then make a decision to propose to the CEO.  This activity should be video-taped.

Create a Jingle

This is a continuation of the previous activity.  Students are given new roles:

The justifier who explains ideas and why they are important

The interpreter who talks about the value of the ideas

The arguer who is the “devil’s advocate” and thinks of all the reasons why an idea won’t work

The evaluator who makes decisions based on the best idea and what has the best outcomes and asks clarifying questions

The teacher will have to help students with their roles by leading a discussion about what these characters might say.  When that is set, the group goes to work on writing a commercial or jingle to market the radioactive jell-0 (also videotaped).  The jingle/commercial should be based on the decision they made in the first activity.  After the activities, there are discussion sheets to fill in and talk about.

What are some observations we can make about the two activities?

What was hard about the activity?  Easy?

Which roles were helpful to the group?  Why?

Which roles weren’t helpful—how do we know?

How would these roles be used in conversations with friends? Parents? At work?

What could happen if you stay in one role all of the time?

What could happen if you always argue or never argue?

What are some good ways to approach discussions?  What do you want to keep in mind about the roles?

Journal Writing

Analyze your conversational style.  What role(s) do you usually play?  Why do you like that role?  Analyze how the role is different at work or with friends? Set a goal:  how will you improve or change your conversational style?

Evaluation

The teacher will analyze the question sheets, videotapes and journal to evaluate the student’s learning.  The teacher should write meaningful comments (especially in the journal).  The teacher should also give meaningful comments as the groups are discussing.

  1. Students will recognize what answer the teacher is looking for when he/she asks a question

Brainstorming

Students will refer back to their semantic feature analysis and review the meanings of the cognitive verbs.  They will brainstorm knowledge they’d use to answer types of questions.  The teacher will give examples (for instance, when a teacher asks a multiple choice question he/she wants to know if the student knows a fact and when a teacher asks an essay question the teacher usually is determining if the student can apply the facts they know).  Students will also figure out what kind of information they can use to get the answer to the question.  Students will take notes during this discussion.

Scenarios

Students will be given a sheet with several scenarios on it (for example:  The teacher wants to know if a student can compare bacteria and viruses.  What kind of question (using your cognitive verbs) would he/she write to find this out).   Scenarios should also relate to work and home (for example:  You have to train a new employee to work the cash register at work tomorrow and your boss wants to make sure you can give that person the correct information.  What kind of question (using your verbs) might he/she ask you just to make sure you know the information?)  Hopefully students will write questions like:  “Compare a bacteria with a virus,” and “explain how to use this cash register.”

Index Cards and Wall Charts

Students will make their own index cards with reminders about types of questions and answers which can be laminated for them to keep handy.  Update this for 21st Century learning by having students use their 1:1 iPad instead of notecards. They can also make a wall chart for each classroom for a reminder as well.  They should include things like:  the definitions of the major cognitive verbs, and what kinds of answers (information) are being sought for certain kinds of questions.

Evaluation

The teacher can look at the index cards, wall charts and scenario sheet to evaluate the learning from these activities.

  1. Students will analyze how to use questions to check their own understanding and to get clarification

Role-Plays

Students will do role-plays of social skills that use questioning formats to gain understanding (following instructions, receiving negative feedback, negotiation, giving negative feedback).  Before the role-playing starts the teacher should ask “What are some situations where we might need to ask what is going on (get a better understanding of a situation)?”  Lead students to their social skills and then help them discover situations at home, school and work.  Have students role-play pre-made scenarios of difficult instructions to follow where they have to ask questions to check their understanding and/or get clarification.  Example:  You have to give instructions to your house to someone who has never been to [Burlington].  One person gives the instructions and one person is the “out-of-towner.”

Clarifying Directions

Students will be given a worksheet of directions for various assignments.  They must read the directions and write a specific question for each to check their understanding (to question the question).  This question is not something like “what do I do?” but it could be something like “I’m not sure what this word means…am I supposed to just list information?” and “What does this question ask?”  After completing the sheets, as a group, students pool their best clarifying questions and try to make them as universal as possible so that they can create another wall chart (and/or index card); They can also be given a list of Paul’s Critical Thinking Questions to help them with the index cards.

Comic Strip

Students will draw or create a comic strip or picture of characters involved in a discussion.  Characters are asking clarifying questions of each other to continue the discussion.  Show a teacher model of this so that students know what to do.  An example is included in the materials section of this project.  Before they begin to draw, brainstorm some situations where clarifying questions will have to be asked.

Guest Speaker

Students practice asking questions and having a discussion with a guest speaker willing to come in and talk about a topic of interest (of high interest).  The teacher should let the speaker know before-hand what the goal is and that the students are working on asking questions and participating in discussions.  The speaker can also model by being sure to point out what kind of information he/she is giving based on the student’s question (and the speaker can question the students in return).  For example:  a student asks “when were you born?” the speaker might respond by saying “that’s a simple fact, 1972.” Or a student might ask “what is the hardest thing about being a meteorologist?” and the speaker could say “well, I have to analyze a lot about my job to answer that question…”  In short, the teacher should prep the speaker.  It is also a good idea to have everyone sit in a circle for this activity—it will be more intimate and fun that way.  This can be videotaped for teacher review.

Evaluation

The teacher will use the video tape, the scenarios and comic strip.  The teacher should also fill out an evaluation form for the role-plays so that the students get feedback.

Ongoing Evaluation

Once the curriculum is done, the teacher helps shape behavior that is desired in the mainstream by using the behavior management system that is already in place.  For instance, a teacher will now point out “it’s great to have you participating in this discussion,” and “That’s a good clarifying question.”  Students receive “positives” or “points” toward incentives when the teacher observes and acknowledges this type of behavior.

  Sticking to one Topic:  How can Writers Plan and Write a 1 Paragraph Response to a Question?

This is a mini-unit I wrote several years ago.  It is targeted to a small class of 8th and 9th graders with significant reading and writing challenges.  Obviously, if you are in a 21st Century classroom, use any 1:1 application you can in order to cut down on paper use.  I would re-do these lessons within Edmodo or Nearpod for my 1:1 iPad classroom   This mini-unit goes along with the book:  Writing Skills (2004) by Diana Hanbury King

Lesson 1:  Categorizing: Sorting Information to Answer the Question

Objectives:

  • Students will understand how to take a list of brainstorm “ideas” and separate them into categories.
  • Students will understand that the “categories” indicate the “main idea” or “topic” of their paragraphs.

Materials:  pencils/pens or other writing implements, and paper

Special note:  to be done in conjunction with The Iliad

Steps:

  • Explain that writers stick to one topic in paragraphs and they plan it out. All good writers begin with a brainstorm.
  • “We’re going to brainstorm some items together. We’ve been reading The Iliad so we’re going to use subjects related to the book.  I will give the subject and you all will tell me things to write down.” (spend about 10 mins)
    • Characters from the story
    • Character traits of Achilles
    • Character traits of Paris
  • “Now we’re going to separate our lists into categories. Let’s look at the kind of items we listed for [name of list].”   Read each list and separate the items into categories.  If they have trouble coming up with categories for the lists you can guide them (for example, “Characters from the story” might have categories like:  “gods,” “goddesses,” “heroes.”  “Character traits of Achilles” might have categories like: “likeable traits,” and “unlikable traits.”) (5-10 mins).
  • Explain how the separate categories each become a topic with details related to it.
  • Practice individually with easy subjects like: “animals,” “items in [name a room of a house],” and/or “food.”  Help them come up with categories and list the items that go within the categories.  (10-15mins).
  • “Now you’re going to try it with a subject we’ve been discussing. Get a piece of paper and write down ‘everything related to being a hero.’”  Give them 2 mins.
  • “Now read your list and find at least 2 categories.” If they have trouble you can guide them with ideas like “physical traits,” “personality traits,” and/or “deeds.”  “Separate your items into your 2 categories.” (5-10 mins).

 

Lesson 2:  Topic Sentences:  Letting the Reader Know What You’re Going to Say

Objectives:

  • Students will give category names for lists of items and will continue to practice placing items into categories
  • Students will create sentences from category names and learn that these are called topic sentences

Materials:  writing implements and paper.  Prepare ahead of time:  words on post it notes for students to physically move into categories that they have named—give each student 10-15 words, each on a separate post-it, but related to a specific subject which can be broken down into at least 2 categories.  Use words relating to subjects such as:  hobbies, animals, foods, movies, rap songs, car parts…or others.   Put the post-its randomly on a large piece of construction paper (each student will get 1 large piece of construction paper with 10-15 post-its on it). Also prepare ahead of time:  a worksheet with several items listed so students can practice naming categories.  This sheet will also be used for writing topic sentences.

Steps:

  • Warm-up (together): “Let’s list everything we can think of relating to the Greek gods and goddesses.” (take 1 min to list—each student makes their own list).
  • “Make 2 categories for the list you just made.”  If students need guidance, give them some suggestions such as—“goddesses,” “gods,” “their domains,” “their symbols.” (5-10 mins).  Read and share.
  • “Now I’m going to give you each a bunch of words that have been grouped together.  You are going to figure out the categories.  Read the post-its and then move them into your 2 or 3 categories.” (5-10 mins).  When this activity is done, have students each read their category title and then list the items they moved into that category. (5-10 mins).  Each student should have at least 2 categories with 5-8 items in each.
  • On an overhead—quick review:  list several countries then have students give you the name of the category; list several snack foods and have students give you the category; list several brands of shoes and have students give you the category. (5 mins).
  • Hand out the sheet you prepared ahead of time with the lists of items.  They will individually practice naming the category. (10 mins)
  • “Now we need to practice writing our category names into sentences.  This will be practice for writing topic sentences for paragraph writing.”  Explain that you need to put the words of the category name into a sentence that will tell the reader what we are talking about.  Use examples from the quick review:  for “countries” write something like:  “There are many countries in the world.”  For “snack foods” get their ideas and write them down.  They might be something like:  “There are many delicious foods available to eat for snacks.”  For “brands of shoes” get ideas from students and write them down.  They might be something like:  “There are many brands of shoes to buy.”  Students can then practice writing topic sentences with the post-it categories they had. Students share what they wrote when all done. (10 mins)
  • Students then take the worksheet and write sentences for the category names.  Go over it together to make sure all students have written good topic sentences. (10 mins)

Lists of items to make into a worksheet (they will come up with the category name and during another part of the lesson write the category name into a sentence).

Group 1:  pencil, paper, eye contact, directions (things needed to do school work)

Group 2:  snowboarding, ice skating, skiing, ice climbing (winter activities)

Group 3:  brush teeth, eat breakfast, get dressed, comb hair (getting ready for school)

Group 4:  Achilles, Agamemnon, Odysseus, Menelaus (Greek heroes in Iliad)

Group 5:  Zeus, Athena, Apollo, Aphrodite (Greek gods and goddesses)

Lesson 3: Details and Keywords: Organizing What you Want to Say to the Reader

Objectives:

  • Students will practice turning sentences into keywords
  • Students will expand lists of details using the key word strategy

Materials:  writing implements, examples projected or where the group can see them with copies for each student with sentences relating to The Iliad and/or current vocabulary.  Individual worksheets as required with sentences (to be turned to keywords).  Worksheet from lesson 2.  Additional worksheet with lists of details to expand into keywords.

Steps:

  • Explain that outlining what we write or taking notes can be faster if we use just keywords from a sentence. We take the important words only.  Practice together with projected examples.  After a few examples, students should be able to tell you which words to use and continue working together for practice.  (5-10 mins).
  • Give them a different sheet for them to do for individual practice. (5-10 mins).
  • Explain: when preparing your details for writing, you have to expand them a little bit so you know what you want to say about them.  Take out the worksheet from lesson 2 and look at the first list of words (pencil, paper, eye contact, directions).  Write those down on a separate piece of paper.
  • “We know that the category is ‘things needed for schoolwork.’ Let’s expand these details a little bit.” Ask them “what about the pencil?” etc… or “why do we need [name of item]”?  Write down what they say—then turn it into key words.  Example:  They may say “you need a pencil to do the writing.”  Write the sentence.  Turn it to key words:  pencil/writing.  When you’ve done this task you should have a detail list in keywords for each of the groups of words from the worksheet.  Doing 1 or 2 more together should reinforce the pattern:  say the sentence, write the sentence, turn it to keywords.  They can finish the sheet on their own.  (10-15 mins).
  • Have another sheet handy for additional practice if needed. (10-15 mins).

Items for individual practice (sentences to be turned to keywords):

  1. Hector and Paris were brothers in ancient Troy.
  2. Paris was banished as a baby because he was going to be the downfall of Troy.
  3. Paris was secretly brought up by a shepherd instead of being killed.
  4. Paris returned to Troy and a joyous reunion from his family.
  5. Paris fell in love with Helen and brought her back to Troy.
  6. Helen left her husband Menelaus and the city of Sparta to be with Paris.
  7. Menelaus gathered the Greek troops and sailed for war with Troy.
  8. The war lasted ten years and many Greeks and Trojans died.
  9. Helen never really loved Menelaus if she left him so easily for Paris.
  10. The Greeks tricked the Trojans so they thought the Greeks had gone.
  11. The Trojans celebrated by bringing the Trojan Horse into the city.
  12. They didn’t know the horse actually had 25 Greeks inside ready to let the rest of the fleet into the city.
  13. Achilles was seething with Agamemnon and refused to fight anymore.
  14. Achilles wanted vengeance after his friend Patroclus was killed by Hector.

Items for additional practice:

Zeus, Hera, Aphrodite, Athena

Topic sentence:  Each god or goddess chose a side to help during the Trojan war and aided that side in any way they could.

(leave space for them to write the sentence then turn it to keywords)

Achilles, Agamemnon, Briseis, Fight

Topic sentence:  Achilles’ decision at end of the war had a big impact during the last year of fighting.

(leave space…)

Treaty, losing, coward, fighting

Topic sentence:  At one point during the last year of fighting, everyone thinks the war will end with a simple duel between Paris and Menelaus.

(leave space…)

Patroclus, death, vengeance, Hector

Topic sentence:  The Greeks are losing the war, so Achilles makes a decision which will change his life and the outcome of the war.

 

Lesson 4:  Putting it Together: Planning your Response to the Question

Objectives:

  • Students will break down writing into small steps when given questions to answer in paragraph form:  brainstorming, categorizing, detailing in keywords and writing a topic sentence.

Materials:  questions (general—for practice together, and relating to The Iliad for individual work).  Examples prepared ahead of time with quick reviews:  sentences to keywords, keywords to sentences, category names to topic sentences.

Steps:

  • Quick review together:  change sentences to keywords; change keywords to sentences; come up with topic sentences (10 mins)
    • Sentence Review:  Yesterday, I went to the store and bought milk.  Tomorrow I need to go to the dentist.  Wednesday is the middle day of the week. (or similar sentences).  Keywords Review:  Burlington/city/Vermont; Iliad/story/war/love; Zeus/king/angry/lightening.  Topic Sentences Review:  things in a kitchen drawer; reasons to fight a war;  ways to say No to someone.
  • Let’s practice answering questions using our new brainstorming and keyword strategies.”  Give the question:  Write a paragraph that discusses different hobbies people enjoy and why they enjoy them.  “This is a question a teacher might expect you to write a paragraph about.”  Explain how to break down the task into steps using the strategies we’ve practiced.
  • Step 1 should be to brainstorm the hobbies you know and why people enjoy them.
  • Step 2 should be to narrow the topic by making categories and sorting the list.
  • Step 3 should be to turn the details into keywords.
  • Step 4 should be to write a topic sentence for the details.
      • They may come up with something like: photography/artistic; snowboarding/active/exciting; gaming/relaxing; reading/relaxing/enjoyable.  With a topic sentence like:  People usually choose hobbies that suit their needs.
  • Give another writing question for group practice:   Discuss the reasons people should graduate from high school.  Again, break it down into steps.  If they need another question for practice choose from these:  Should students have to wear uniforms—why or why not?;   Should students be allowed to use cell phones in school—why or why not?. (20-25 mins total for all group work)
  • Give individual practice sheet or examples—they should get a keyword detail list and a topic sentence for each question, the point is not to write out the answers in paragraphs…yet (10-15 mins)
      • Questions for individual work:  1. Discuss your reasons supporting whether or not Achilles is a hero.   2.  Is Paris a hero?  Why or why not.   3.  How would the story have been different if Patroclus had not died?   4.  What would have been different if Hector had not been killed?

Lesson 5:  Concluding Sentences and The Quick Outline:  Finishing What you Want to Say

Objectives:

  • Students will learn 4 ways to write a concluding sentence
  • Students will write concluding sentences for the questions they did in the previous lesson
  • Students will practice the Quick Outline method for planning their writing

Materials:  handout with concluding sentence ideas, quick outline handout, quick review, prepared concluding sentence topics (on overhead/worksheets).

Steps:

  • Quick review, group activity: putting sentences into keywords/writing keywords into sentences.  Use the following (prepared ahead of time on an overhead) Helen/Paris/love/war; Hector/Achilles/duel/death; King Priam bravely went into the Greek camp to ransom his son’s body.  Achilles was shot in the heel with an arrow which killed him. (5 mins).
  • Quick review, group activity: project 2 paragraphs for group discussion—students read them, identify the topic sentences and the supporting details.  They transfer the details to keywords. (5 mins)
  • Discuss the format for the brainstorming: it is called a quick outline.  Show them how to fill in the quick outline sheet using the details and topic sentences they have already written from lesson 4.  Fill out 4 quick outlines (one for each question).  Point out that the “C.S.” line is still not filled in because we are about to learn how to do that.
  • Hand out the “Concluding Sentences” sheet you prepared with the 4 types of concluding sentences. Read, discuss relationship of T.S and C.S.  Practice with prepared topics together. (10-15 mins).  Make a sheet of prepared topic sentences or just write them on an overhead—together come up with and write 4 possible concluding sentences for each TS on an overhead sheet.
    • Use these topic sentences for practice: There are many ways to spend a weekend day.  Sometimes directions people give are unclear.  The Trojan War was a long and useless war.
  • Each student should write 3 or 4 different concluding sentences for their Iliad questions begun in lesson 4—then they should choose the one they like best and write it on their quick outlines. (15 mins). These outlines will be used in lesson 6.
  • Review the steps to writing a paragraph response to teacher questions: brainstorm and categorize, outline the details using keywords, write the topic sentence and then the concluding sentence (use the QO form).  (5 mins)

Lesson 6:  Outline to Paragraph and Paragraph to Outline:  When you Stick to Your Plan, The Writing is Clear

Objectives:

  • Students will transfer paragraphs that have already been written into QO format
  • Students will write paragraphs from a QO

Materials:  prepared ahead of time—4 paragraphs that have topic sentences, details and concluding sentences; quick outlines of Iliad questions (begun in lesson 4 and finished in lesson 5).  3 paragraphs that have topic sentences, details and concluding sentences—but which have been written out of order.  2-3 sample quick outlines.

Steps:

  • Quick review, as a group:  scrambled paragraphs.  Read the scrambled sentences and put them in the proper order. (10 mins)
  • As a group put the first of the 4 paragraphs into QO format, then have students individually put the other 3 into QO format on their own. (15 mins).
  • As a group, look at the first sample quick outline and write it into a paragraph.  Emphasize how the topic sentence is already there, putting each detail into sentences is just like what we practiced with keywords to sentences, then the concluding sentence is already there. Practice with another group one if necessary and do the last one individually or have them practice with the last 2 on their own.
  • Students should then be able to write their QO’s from their Iliad questions into 4 separate paragraphs.

4 Paragraphs that you can use for this lesson:

  1. Monday is an unpopular day of the week.  People look at Monday on the calendar and realize that they still have 4 more days to go through until they get to the weekend.  On Monday mornings, people sometimes have trouble getting up because they are used to “sleeping in” on Saturday and Sunday mornings.  In popular culture, Mondays have often been associated with bad feelings and loud groans.  If people could sleep through Mondays altogether, they might be able to avoid all those bad feelings.
  1. There are many animals that are endangered due to human activity.  Many species of whales were hunted nearly to extinction in the last century and now they are having trouble recovering.  Pandas are losing their natural habitat in the bamboo forests of China because of humans using the land for their own purposes.  Polar bears have less ice to live and hunt on because of the warming oceans and climate change due to human activity.  Humans need to change their ways if animals and humans are to live together in harmony.
  1. Summer is a favorite time of the year for many people.  Because it is so warm, people are outside more and enjoying the weather.  There are many things to do in the summer that can’t be done in the winter.  Students are on vacation and can spend their days doing things they enjoy.  Summer is an amazing time of year.
  1. Reading is an important, yet rewarding skill to master.  There is a ton of information that can be obtained from the pages of a book, so knowing how to understand the information is important.  When people read for fun, they are “transported” to a whole world where they can escape reality for awhile.  When someone reads well, then lots of things are easier for them to master.  Everyone should have the opportunity to learn to read better.

3 sample quick outlines for this lesson:

TS:  There are many things to enjoy at the fair.

Ride/rides/enjoyment/fear

Eat/food/spicy/sweet

See/animals/vegetables

Side shows/laugh/question realism

CS:  At the fair, there is something for everyone to do and enjoy.

TS:  There are several Greek gods and goddesses who the ancient Greeks attributed to parts of the Trojan War and its outcome.

Aphrodite/love/golden apple/Paris/promised Helen

Zeus/king/forbid others help/enjoyed humans toiling

Athena/wisdom/guided Greek Heroes

Hephaestus/blacksmith/forged armor/Achilles/new life to Greeks

CS:  If the ancient Greeks and Trojans blamed all their fortunes or misfortunes on gods and goddesses, then they didn’t need to take responsibility for their own actions.

TS:  There are several legends, all involving one man, that are said to have caused the famous Trojan War.

Paris/not killed/baby/secretly raised

Eris/not invited wedding/mischief with golden apple

Paris/Aphrodite winner/awarded with love

Paris/Helen/leave Sparta

CS:  There were many accounts told by the ancient Greeks that supposedly led to the Trojan War, but no single person could ever be responsible for such a tragic chain of events.

3 paragraphs you can scramble (from National Geographic Kids Magazine  September 2007):

 

  1. Rabies is a dangerous disease, but it is relatively rare.  Only 1 or 2 people in the US develop rabies every year, but thousands are exposed.  Stay safe by never handling wild animals or petting neighborhood animals whose owners you don’t know.  Rabid animals are rare, but if you are bitten seek medical attention immediately.  When you know more about the risks, you can prevent yourself from ever getting Rabies.
  1. The last thing anyone expected to see in the middle of a road was a seal pup.  But, there it was, eight miles from its ocean habitat in the North Irish Sea.  Luckily, the seal pup was healthy and unharmed, so it was released back into its habitat.  The mystery remains unsolved as to how it got so far away from its home. At least the story has a happy ending.
  1. Washington pygmy rabbits are some very lucky bunnies.  These pocket-sized rabbits were hopping toward extinction just a few years ago.  Wildfires and farming in Washington State had destroyed most of their habitat.  Wildlife experts started breeding them in captivity.  Now the pygmy rabbits are protected and are bouncing back.